Plans for botanical complex jeopardized
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 2/14/2003)
The troubled Massachusetts Horticultural Society has hit another pothole in its effort to build a botanical complex on a key section of the new Surface Artery corridor.
Surface Artery designs debated
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 2/5/2003)
Five urban design specialists called for bolder ideas last night from the design teams picked to create the parks that Boston area residents have awaited during 11 years of Big Dig construction.
Two groups touting ambitious plans for new space
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 2/4/2003)
One group seeks to give historic Boston something it has never had -- a museum of history. The other envisions a center focusing on the cultures and peoples of the region. Both have their eyes on the open space being created by removal of the elevated Central Artery.
Last Surface Artery design team picked
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 1/16/2003)
More than a decade after planning began to restore the Surface Artery corridor and return it to the use of Boston residents and visitors, the designer selection process is complete.
Chinatown, split by highways decades ago, prepares to reconnect after the Big Dig
(By Ric Kahn, Globe Staff, 12/29/2002)
Chinatown activists are hoping to stitch back together the eastern tip of the neighborhood that was severed 40 years ago by the construction of the Mass. Turnpike Extension. To do so, they are eyeing about an acre of land known as Parcel 24, which sits on the lost end of Hudson Street.
Design team for Wharf has vision of parks, rink
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 12/24/2002)
The Massachusetts Turnpike Authority and Boston officials yesterday chose a design team to begin transforming the land of the Surface Artery.
Surface designers for wharf are chosen
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 12/23/2002)
A Virginia company teamed with a local designer has been chosen to design the Wharf District's public space, five central blocks of the new Surface Artery corridor, a person familiar with the selection committee's decision said.
Big Dig's plans for park called a big disappointment
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 12/22/2002)
Discussions have simmered for months over the placement of a section of the Harborwalk and a tiny park on the South Boston side of Fort Point Channel, adjacent to land owned by Gillette Co.
Architects chosen for Artery parcels
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 11/20/2002)
Massachusetts Turnpike Authority officials have revealed the winner, chosen by a committee of city and state officials several weeks ago, and released designs for the North End that were submitted by the winner and three other finalists.
Open-space ideas may go public
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 11/15/2002)
Boston and Massachusetts Turnpike Authority officials reacted favorably to a proposal for a major public event early next
year to show off 50 design professionals' concepts for the post-Big Dig Surface Artery open space.
Big Dig won't quite be ready in 2004
(By Mac Daniel, Globe Staff, 11/14/2002)
A pledge by Central Artery and city officials that the Big Dig would be over by the time of the Democratic National Convention in 2004 now looks impossible to keep.
Design team is selected for North End Artery parcel
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 11/5/2002)
A five-person panel has selected a design team for the North End section of the Surface Artery, but Massachusetts Turnpike Authority officials say they won't name the winner until they consult with City Hall.
District has big plans for life after Big Dig
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 10/27/2002)
A new document detailing a "Planning Framework for Future Development of Downtown North" is surely one of the most impressive pieces of research associated with a particular section of Boston that has ever been produced.
Artery plans hardly scratch the surface
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 10/20/2002)
A lot of long meetings lately on governance of the 30 or so acres under the elevated Central Artery have been marked by squabbling, indecision, and a notable lack of leadership
More than 800,000 stroll across sun-splashed span
(By Peter DeMarco, Globe Correspondent, 10/7/2002)
Yesterday's pedestrian preview of the Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge was a sun-splashed romp for more than 800,000
walkers routed by Disney World-style queues.
(By Scott Kirsner, 9/30/2002)
After all the billions spent, all the excavation, all the concrete and sweat and steel, the opening of two major sections of the Big Dig later this year hinges on technology.
Big Dig is ramping down the Central Artery
(By Mac Daniel, Globe Staff, 9/22/2002)
The beginning of the end is at hand. On the north side of the FleetCenter, quietly, the Central Artery is coming down, and Kirk Elwell is about as happy as a Big Dig supervisor can be.
Key legislator questions need to create trust for Big Dig land
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 9/21/2002)
With opposition growing to the creation of a public trust to control the Surface Artery land left behind by the Big Dig, a key legislator says a new organization may not be needed.
Zakim Bridge walk set for dedication
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 9/19/2002)
The state has announced it will stage a series of public events next month that will culminate with a five-hour walk on the Leonard P. Zachim bridge and a ribbon-cutting.
New fight erupts over Surface Artery
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 9/17/2002)
Things are moving backward as fast as forward in the effort to determine what to do with Boston's Surface Artery land -- the 30-acre Big Dig corridor now only a little more than two years from scheduled completion.
Report predicts Big Dig's tunnels won't open on time
(By Raphael Lewis, Globe Staff, 9/13/2002)
The much-anticipated opening of the Big Dig's downtown tunnels will occur more than two months later than project officials have stated, but the delays will not increase the project's $14.6 billion price tag, according to a confidential report.
Another air intake, this time with style
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 9/8/2002)
Everybody wants to know: What is that steel structure with the rounded top that has sprung up near the Federal Reserve Bank, on a
Surface Artery parcel the Massachusetts Horticultural Society is supposed to occupy?
People pace, peek at Artery tunnel
(By Anand Vaishnav, Globe Staff, 8/26/2002)
Sharing bottled water, cameras, and strollers, about 600,000 people descended yesterday into a cool, subterranean sliver of Boston's future.
Big Dig, fire officials prepare for tunnel chaos
(By Raphael Lewis, Globe Staff, 8/6/2002)
With major portions of the Central Artery project set to open by year's end, Big Dig officials are scrambling to develop a comprehensive fire emergency plan, which must be approved by the Boston Fire
Department before traffic can enter the new underground highway system.
Effort fails to form trust for artery's greenway
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 8/1/2002)
Efforts to create an independent public trust to develop and oversee a Surface Artery Greenway downtown died yesterday, opposed by legislators and public groups who contend it was rushed and riddled with problems.
Emotions high as advisory panel hits Surface Artery plan
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 7/18/2002)
Boston Mayor Thomas M. Menino's advisory task force on the Surface Artery objected to
almost every section of the proposed governing legislation yesterday during a
meeting that lasted twice as long as planned.
Foes rise against greenway plan
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 7/17/2002)
A bill to create a public trust to govern the new Greenway was filed in the Legislature yesterday, but opponents vowed to derail the plan, saying the new organization would lack accountability to the public.
Greenway plan set, political leaders say
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 7/13/2002)
As city and state officials unveiled governing legislation for a new Surface Artery Greenway, some veterans of the negotiations over the land yesterday worried that a decade of promises may not be kept.
Legislation near for managing Artery corridor
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 7/11/2002)
State and city officials have reached broad agreement on a plan to turn over 30 acres of public space created by the demolition of the Central Artery to a nonprofit public trust.
Russia Wharf owner unveils hotel-office-condo project
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 7/2/2002)
The owner of historic Russia Wharf is planning to build a $275 million complex that would include condominiums and apartments, a hotel, a nightclub, and a 31-story office tower.
Swift, Finneran promise action on Big Dig land
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 6/27/2002)
Acting Governor Jane M. Swift and House Speaker Thomas M. Finneran testified yesterday they will do everything possible to get a law creating a trust to govern the new downtown Boston Surface Artery passed by July 31.
Surface Artery makeover to take root with tree planting
(By Raphael Lewis, Globe Staff, 6/15/2002)
Twelve years after construction workers first began tearing up downtown Boston, a shipment of linden and honey locust trees arrived this week, the first trees to be planted on the restored Surface Artery.
City plans park for Ft. Point Channel
(By Sarah Schweitzer, Globe Staff, 5/29/2002)
Mayor Menino has announced plans to transform industrial Fort Point Channel into the city's next great parkland.
After the Big Dig, the big question: Where's the vision?
(By Robert Campbell, Globe Correspondent, 5/26/2002)
A lot of bright and good people are trying to figure out what do with 25-plus acres of new Boston land. So far, they've gotten nowhere.
Facing off over Big Dig jewel
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 5/25/2002)
Over the objections of top city and state officials, the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority yesterday formally requested bids from those who want to design the jewel of the Surface Artery: the Wharf District open space.
(By Raphael Lewis, Globe Staff, 5/7/2002)
Many who must look at the five ventilation buildings that have started to cast their gargantuan, spiky silhouettes on Boston's skyline say they liked the Big Dig a lot more when it was underground.
New group proposed for artery land
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 5/3/2002)
State and Boston officials deciding the fate of the land on top of the underground Central Artery have agreed to place both the open space and development parcels of the land in the hands of a new nonprofit organization.
Panel feels excluded from Surface Artery planning
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 4/23/2002)
Frustration is reaching a boiling point among the people who have struggled for a decade to deliver on the Big Dig's promise of extensive parklands.
What's in a name? Regarding Surface Artery, no one's sure
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 4/21/2002)
An extraordinarily confusing debate is going on about how the downtown land will be governed, controlled, and paid for.
Ideas for Big Dig space include dog runs, jogging path, cafes
(By Peter DeMarco, Globe Correspondent, 4/14/2002)
The ideas piled up faster than rush-hour traffic when the Boston Foundation and the Boston Society of Architects asked more than 200 people to draw up a wish list for reusing the Central Artery land.
End nears for elevated Artery
(By Raphael Lewis, Globe Staff, 4/14/2002)
Nearly half a century after the elevated Central Artery was erected, crawling through downtown Boston like an alien centipede, the Big Dig project is finally preparing to exterminate the battle-scarred hulk.
Big Dig prepares to choose designers
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 4/8/2002)
A dozen years after planning began for a renewed Surface Artery corridor liberally sprinkled with parks, the call for final proposals from urban designers who want to remold downtown Boston is expected to go out late this week.
Another idea for the Artery's open space
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 3/24/2002)
Those who watch for even the tiniest signs of progress on the future of the Surface Artery were encouraged this week when Secretary of Environmental Affairs Bob Durand suggested there is a way to protect the open, or public, space.
Off dead center on the Surface Artery
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 3/10/2002)
What a difference a decision makes. Mayor Thomas Menino and House Speaker Tom Finneran have agreed on the seemingly unresolvable questions of the Surface Artery land.
Privatization eyed for Artery park
(By Anthony Flint, Globe Staff, 3/7/2002)
With its welcoming lawn, moveable chairs, and nearly constant throng of people, Bryant Park in New York City is the kind of place Massachusetts officials have in mind in the proposal for a privately run park on the surface of the submerged Central Artery.
Menino urges tax to fund Artery land
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 3/6/2002)
Boston Mayor Thomas M. Menino yesterday proposed a permanent real estate surtax on downtown businesses to fund management and maintenance of precious Surface Artery open space being reclaimed by the Big Dig.
Open conflict over open space
Delay fuels fighting over 30 Big Dig acres' use
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr, Globe Staff, 1/24/2002)
Neighborhood and community groups say the Artery Business Committee is the cause of the latest delay in efforts to reclaim 30 acres of valuable downtown land -- a process that has been underway for more than a decade.
Plan advances for park on Big Dig land
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr, Globe Staff, 1/19/2002)
The Massachusetts Turnpike Authority next month plans to begin soliciting firms interested in designing parks on 30 acres being reclaimed by the Big Dig, an authority official said yesterday.
City transport plan leaves traffic mess
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 10/7/2001)
We promised you a first glimpse of Boston's grand transportation plan, and then we waited. It was going to be issued last year, but as Bob Dylan sings in his Oscar-winning song, "Things Have Changed."
Envisioning a changing city
(By Robert Campbell, Globe Correspondent, 7/19/2001)
Rebecca Barnes is Boston's chief planner. It's a job that didn't exist before Barnes took it last spring. At the time, she was running her own business as a planning consultant.
Report urges new artery panel
(By Raphael Lewis, Globe Staff, 7/4/2001)
The 30-acre Surface Artery park and Rose Kennedy Greenway that will replace the elevated portion of Interstate 93 in downtown Boston should be controlled and maintained by a new governmental entity, according to a draft report released yesterday by the Surface Artery Legislative Commission.
Still missing: A vision for artery land
(By Robert Campbell, Globe Correspondent, 5/31/2001)
Reading the plan for the Central Artery corridor is like peering through fog. You can make out the dim shapes of some good ideas, but they're obscured by so much soothing eyewash that you'll probably quit out of boredom. Maybe that's the goal of this kind of document: to make your eyes glaze over. You can't get mad at what you can't stand reading.
A vision of green for artery surface
Latest park plan revealed to public
(By Robert Campbell, Globe Correspondent, 5/23/2001)
By 2005, a chain of green parks will replace the overhead Central Artery in downtown Boston. Fountains will flow, lunchers will snack, children will gambol, tourists will photograph, and seniors will doze in the sun, or, in winter, skaters will skate.
That, anyway, was the vision unveiled yesterday at the first public presentation of the Central Artery corridor master plan.
Surprise surfaces over naming of Artery Corridor
(By Raphael Lewis, Globe Staff, 5/23/2001)
Toward the end of a ho-hum meeting of the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority board yesterday, the authority's chief operating officer mentioned in passing that all were invited to attend a brief ceremony next Wednesday. Taking place in Christopher Columbus Park, the ceremony would celebrate the creation of the Rose F. Kennedy Greenway, said J. Richard Capka.
Groups at odds over funding for surface artery
Public, Private Sources Advised During Meeting
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 5/10/2001)
Environmental and business interests formed an unlikely alliance yesterday to argue before lawmakers that a constant stream of public funds will be needed to keep the new downtown atop the completed Big Dig from falling into ruin.
Foreign bids may join artery design
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 4/3/2001)
Hoping the world's top creative talent will help reshape the future look of downtown Boston, Mayor Thomas M. Menino is considering a plan that would open the design of a key portion of the Surface Artery Corridor to international competition.
Pike board angered by Menino proposal on artery corridor
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 2/28/2001)
Angry Massachusetts Turnpike Authority board members said yesterday they would fight any attempt by the City of Boston to control the new Surface Artery corridor space but pass the cost on to others.
City, state seeking artery panel control
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 2/15/2001)
The battle for control of Boston's precious downtown open space to be created by the Big Dig escalated yesterday, as the
city proposed that it dominate a board governing the land but pay only a quarter of the cost of maintaining the parcel.
Big Dig's open-space plan lags
Lack of ideas, consensus slows design at art
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 1/29/2001)
For the first time, Big Dig officials say the timetable for creating a comprehensive and attractive design for the open space atop the depressed Central Artery will not be met.
On the surface, central artery plans leave lot to be desired
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 12/25/2000)
The shaping of the post-Big Dig Surface Artery Corridor downtown crept onward on two fronts last week. The boring but important work of hashing out who will own the land, who will coordinate development of the buildable parcels, and who will control, maintain and -- toughest of all -- pay for the open space, continues with a 12-member commission meeting at the State House.
Big Dig park plans backed
Business leaders see no interest in added development
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 11/24/2000)
The open land on the Surface Artery is safe. Despite publicly expressed fears that developers could grab a larger share of the 30 acres being reclaimed in Boston by the Big Dig, key players -- including the business community -- say the current plan works.
City bids to run, not fund, artery land
Panel divided on open space
(By Thomas C. Palmer, Globe Staff, 10/26/2000)
As plans emerge for the new, 30-acre strip of open space in downtown Boston created by the depression of the Central Artery, the city wants to be put in charge of the open space and insists that other agencies and the private sector help pick up the tab.
Panel vies to guide surface artery
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 10/19/2000)
The new Legislative Commission on the Surface Artery held only its second meeting yesterday, but already members have conflicting ideas about their mission.
Planners debate what to put on top of the Big Dig
(By Steve LeBlanc, Associated Press, 10/12/2000)
Billions of dollars and hundreds of traffic headaches later, planners of the massive Big Dig highway project are now facing what could be the toughest challenge of all: deciding what to put on top.
Planning, debate over use of surface artery space pick up speed
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 10/9/2000)
After years of inaction, there is a flurry of activity surrounding the future of the Surface Artery downtown, the land to be reclaimed when Interstate 93 is shoveled underground.
Report tries to envision all that Artery corridor could be
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 7/4/2000)
It's a tall order for 30 acres. But a draft report from the consultants coordinating the planning for the post-Big Dig Surface Artery says that the land has plenty of potential.
Planners Take A 3-Hour Virtual Trip Down The Surface Artery
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 5/15/2000)
About 150 people had some fun and made a contribution last Tuesday night at the second of three ''corridorwide'' public meetings on the future of the surface artery, held at the Federal Reserve building. The subject was the roughly 27 acres of space under the elevated old Central Artery and down through Dewey Square that is being reclaimed by the expenditure of $13.6 billion to put I-93 out of sight and out of mind.
A bid to organize Boston history
Group eyes parcel for a new museum
(By Karen Eschbacher, Globe Correspondent, 4/21/2000)
History-hungry tourists and residents seeking to learn about events that helped spark the Revolution can stroll the Freedom Trail. The Women's Heritage Trail and the African Meeting House are among scores of local attractions that tell other pieces of Boston's past. But those seeking a complete history of the city -- from Colonial times to the great Irish influx to the high-tech boom -- can't find it under one roof. That could change if The Boston Museum Project has its way.
When dust settles, backers still see projects on reclaimed Artery
(By Mac Daniel, Globe Staff, 4/12/2000)
Nancy Caruso heads the North End/Waterfront Central Artery Committee, a group of eight residents who have met every Tuesday the past eight years to plan and promote their community's windfall once the gaping hole of the Big Dig is filled.
As the city's new landscape unfolds, opportunities abound to break the mold. But few observers hold out hope for cutting-edge design
(By Anthony Flint, Globe Staff, 3/26/2000)
Boston is poised to be a truly distinctive metropolis, functional, lively, and interesting to look at -- a real laboratory for architecture and design. But to hear some architects tell it, the city's unadventurous tendencies pose a problem. Design-wise, apparently, Boston is internationally known for having a case of the blahs.
Authority Moves On Artery Surface Plan
(By Richard Kindleberger, Globe Staff, 2/11/2000)
After a decade of study, officials planning what happens to the 27 acres left on the surface when the Central Artery goes underground are about to take a first step toward implementation.
Officials name Artery surface planner
(By Anthony Flint, Globe Staff, 2/3/2000)
A master planner has been selected to help shape the last great piece of real estate in downtown Boston -- the surface of the depressed Central Artery, currently occupied by the hulking elevated highway that will be dismantled starting in 2005.
City makes move on artery restoration
(By Anthony Flint, Globe Staff, 1/25/2000)
City Hall is back in the driver's seat on the restoration of the Central Artery surface -- at least for now. The latest commission to help plan the surface -- a 27-acre corridor of breathtaking possibilities for parks and buildings, occupying the strip where the elevated highway now stands -- met for the first time last week.
Artery parks may be problem
Planners seeking open space debate
(By Anthony Flint and Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 12/20/1999)
After 15 years of planning for the surface of the submerged Central Artery, city and state officials are still grappling with a stubborn problem: that in some places along the 27-acre corridor, parks may end up being as much of a barrier as the elevated highway.
City plans artistic Artery
Nautical images, seating may fill open public space
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., and Anthony Flint, Globe Staff, 12/6/1999)
Amid the political free-for-all over the future of the post-Big Dig Surface Artery land downtown -- over who's in charge, who isn't, and who will pay -- a plan exists.
Menino, Kerasiotes spar on Artery space
(By Yvonne Abraham, Globe Staff, 12/01/1999)
Just a few months ago, both Mayor Thomas M. Menino and Massachusetts Turnpike chairman James J. Kerasiotes faced harsh criticism for paying too little mind to Central Artery surface restoration.
No endgame for Big Dig's open space turf war
Stalls plans for surface over artery
(By Anthony Flint and Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 11/22/1999)
The year is 2020, and tourists are scurrying across the surface of the submerged Central Artery, avoiding cars and checking maps to get from Faneuil Hall to the Aquarium. Mothers with strollers are leaning into a gusty wind, passing through a barren park where no one lingers.
Menino seeks larger role in Artery surface plan
(By Anthony Flint, Globe Staff, 11/20/1999)
In an unusual move to seize the initiative on Central Artery surface restoration, Mayor Thomas M. Menino yesterday proposed a new commission to oversee planning of the vast new open space -- with his own chief of staff as chairman.
Skirmishes to control artery land continue
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., and Anthony Flint, Globe Staff, 11/10/1999)
The Surface Artery land is up in the air again. And once again, the issue is how much of a say the city will have in the development of 27 acres of new land created by the Big Dig
Planner To Eye Space Created By Artery Work
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 10/7/1999)
After haggling for years over what to do with 27 acres created when the Central Artery is put underground, government and community officials yesterday agreed to accept a Turnpike Authority proposal to hire a master planner.
Design of artery surface at issue
Kerasiotes urges hiring of planner
(By Anthony Flint, Globe Staff, 9/21/1999)
Frustrated by what he sees as the slow pace of action at City Hall, Massachusetts Turnpike chairman James J. Kerasiotes has proposed hiring a master planner to design a 27-acre strip of open space over the submerged Central Artery.
(By Alan Lupo, Globe Staff, 7/4/1999)
Even as hard hats have been laboring above and below the surface to create the depressed Central Artery, other interested parties have been meeting to discuss what the surface over the Big Dig will look like when the project is completed sometime in the next millennium.
Nature Is Key To Plans For Artery, Fan Pier Sites
Botanical Garden Eyed Over Highway
(By Anthony Flint and Judith Gaines, Globe Staff, 6/26/1999)
An ambitious proposal to redesign Dewey Square that links the Big Dig, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, and private property owners is winning kudos as a model for how to develop the open land over the soon-to-be submerged Central Artery, which has been the subject of fierce debate in recent days.
Agencies Disagree On Turf Over The Big Dig
(By Thomas C. Palmer Jr., Globe Staff, 6/22/1999)
With 7 1/2 years of the Big Dig down and 4 1/2 years to go, nobody knows what the reclaimed downtown Boston territory is going to look like. Urban activists haven't come up with a compelling plan, the state and the Big Dig don't want to get stuck with further costs, and many say the biggest beneficiary -- the city of Boston -- has been more or less AWOL.
Artery Corridor Plan Is Caught In Traffic
An agreement is lacking on some major recommendations
(By Richard Kindleberger, Globe Staff, 11/22/1998)
A year ago the sense of urgency was intense. A mountain of work needed to be done if Boston were to realize its dream of creating a corridor of parkland and buildings to replace the elevated Central Artery downtown when it is demolished in 2004.