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Globe Staff Photo / George Rizer
  A Boston Globe analysis of traffic tickets and warnings, from every police department in the state, shows differences in race, sex and age in who gets a fine, and who gets a break, for the same offenses.

 PART ONE

Race, sex, and age drive ticketing
On city boulevards and rural lanes, whites and women are far more likely to receive written warnings instead of tickets when stopped for identical traffic offenses, according to a Boston Globe study of newly released state records.
Minority officers are stricter on minorities
Boston to track all stops by police

Graphics:
Who gets speeding fines
Minority officers
Most-favored status
One officer's week

Town-by-town:
Ticketing whites vs. minorities
Large departments | All

Ticketing women vs. men
Large departments | All

 PART TWO

Punishment varies
by town and officer

Despite the get-tough image conveyed by police in advertising campaigns, a Globe review of 166,000 citations found that police in Massachusetts warned fully half of the drivers who were cited for violating a traffic law - a rate higher than in other states that have tallied warnings.

Graphics:
Tickets raise insurance
Ranking the departments
Littering is worse?

Town-by-town:
Toughest police on speeders
Large departments | All
Locals vs. out-of-towners
Large departments | All

 PART THREE


Troopers fair, tough
in traffic encounters

For more than a decade, the terms ''racial profiling'' and ''state police'' have been linked in the public mind. But a Globe study of whether police issue tickets or a written warnings for speeding and other violations found that the Massachusetts State Police force stands out for its fairness, its evenhanded toughness.

Graphics:
Frequent ticketers
How fast can you go?

   
 FOLLOW-UPS

8/8/2004
Police plan public meeting

5/9/2004
Chiefs deny racial profiling

5/6/2004
Civil rights advocates laud plan

5/5/2004
Police chiefs decry study

5/4/2004
Racial profiling is confirmed
Northeastern study [PDF]
Report summary
Police response [MS Word]
Who got a passing grade?

2/16/2004
Police flouting 'no fix' law on tickets

1/21/2004
Profiling study cites dozens of locales Charts
Northeastern study [PDF]

1/20/2004
Reilly pushes to end profiling

1/17/2004
Boston police to get tough

9/19/2003
Judge: Suspect to stay jailed

9/18/2003
Seeing bias, evidence tossed

8/5/2003
Deeper look at profiling

7/24/2003
Funding urged for study

5/24/2003
Ticketing cited despite curbs

3/5/2003
Romney backs tracking
Task force recruited

1/25/2003
Chief: Glitch caused error

1/8/2003
Task force to review data

 OPINION

Globe Editorial: Tickets to fix (July 23, 2003)
Op-Ed: Looking deeper at racial profiling (August 5, 2003)
Globe Editorial: Profiles in prejudice (May 5, 2004)
Op-Ed: Study proves nothing (May 19, 2004)

 ONLINE EXTRAS

Q & A
Secretary of Public Safety Edward A. Flynn, the senior law enforcement official in Massachusetts, spoke with the Globe and fielded questions regarding this series.
    Detailed report [PDF]
A closer look at how the Globe analyzed hundreds of thousands of traffic tickets.

This document requires Adobe Acrobat

    Online chat
On July 22, Globe reporter Bill Dedman chatted with Boston.com readers about this series. Read the full transcript.

 EARLIER COVERAGE

JANUARY 6, 2003
Traffic citations reveal disparity in police searches
When a police officer in Massachusetts pulls over a car and writes a routine traffic ticket, the officer is far more likely to search the car of a black or Hispanic driver than that of a white driver.

JANUARY 7, 2003
Police not pressed on racial records
State officials have known for nearly two years that some police departments are failing to record the race of drivers on all traffic tickets, as required by law to monitor for racial profiling, but the officials have not questioned those police agencies about the missing information.

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