By Cindy Atoji Keene
When the dairy milk market became unpredictable, Ann Starbard, proprietor of Crystal Brook Farm, added a herd of goats to the farmstead. The local production of making fresh chevre, or goat cheese, allowed her to quit her healthcare job and focus on operating the small Sterling farmstead full-time. This was 15 years ago, and today Starbard is in the vanguard of artisan cheese makers emerging throughout New England.
Q: While the craft of cheese-making might seem fun, whatís the reality?
A: Raising goats and manufacturing goat cheese has to be approached like a business or it wonít support the farm. Thereís a tendency to romanticize farming but working with goats is very demanding. My husband Eric and I operate every aspect of production, from raising the animals, milking them, making the cheese, and packaging it on-site. We feed the animals with hay thatís cut from our own pastures. And food safety is critical, including following strict handling regulations of high-perishable milk and cheese.
Q: Was there a big learning curve when you starting raising Saanen, Lamancha and Alpine goats?
A: I grew up on a dairy farm, so dairy animals are in my blood, and milking is something Iím very comfortable with. Generally speaking, dairy animals, whether cows or goats, are used to being handled ¨Ė goats need to be milked twice a day Ė so you really get to know their personalities. What I like to say is that goats are my co-workers and Iím their human. We work at this together.
Q: Making chevre, like making any cheese, is part art, part science. Whatís the art part of it?
A: It takes three days to make fresh cheese, including the pasteurization process, blending of cheese culture and rennet, and draining whey from the curdling cheese. The art part of it is knowing what to add to the cheese, and understanding that the milk differs with the season; in the spring, it will have a lighter bouquet, while in the fall, itís richer. And like wine, goat milk has a terroir, reflecting the geography and climate of the goatís environment.
Q: What goes into goat management that most people donít think of?
A: Thereís no such thing as a sick goat; they are either dead or alive. Goats are very good at masking their illnesses, so you need to be aware of the slightest change to assess health problems. Thereís more wiggle room with cows. For example, a hot goat topic lately is parasite control. We determine heavy parasite load by looking at their eyelids.
Q: How has the heat and humidity affected their milk production?
A: Goats are ruminators, and with the heat and humidity, they donít like to go out and eat. Rumination generates body heat as well. If itís a hot day, Iíll put them in a shady pasture area and make sure they have plenty of water to drink. With the climate change, we are getting more invasive plants in our environment, but those are plants that goats like to eat, such as Japanese knotweed and poison ivy.
Q: How do goats show their individuality?
A: Itís like a high school class; thereís the class clown, the prima donna, the one that gets along with everyone. They havenít read the no-bullying brochure, so they do have a social hierarchy as well. Itís interesting to watch.
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