|Martin Luther King Jr. waved to a crowd at the Lincoln Memorial for his "I Have a Dream" speech during the March on Washington in August 1963. He was slain in 1968. (Associated Press/File)|
King's complexity often ignored
Civil rights icon known best for 'Dream' speech
NEW YORK - They are some of the most famous words in American history: "I have a dream." And the man who said them has become an icon.
Martin Luther King Jr. has certainly gotten his share of attention this year, the subject of a presidential campaign controversy over his legacy that blew up just around the time of the holiday created to honor him.
But nearly 40 years after his assassination in April 1968, some say King is facing the same fate that has befallen many a historical figure: being frozen in a moment in time that ignores the full complexity of the man and his message.
"Everyone knows, even the smallest kid knows about Martin Luther King, can say his most famous moment was that 'I have a dream' speech," said Henry Louis Taylor Jr., professor of urban and regional planning at the University of Buffalo.
"No one can go further than one sentence," he said. "All we know is that this guy had a dream, we don't know what that dream was."
At the time of his death, King was working on antipoverty and antiwar issues.
He had spoken out against the Vietnam War in 1967, and was in Memphis in April 1968 on behalf of striking sanitation workers. King had come a long way from the crowds who cheered him at the 1963 March on Washington, when he was introduced as "the moral leader of our nation" - and when he pronounced "I have a dream" on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.
By taking on issues outside segregation, he had lost the support of many newspapers and magazines, and his relationship with the White House had suffered, said Harvard Sitkoff, a professor of history at the University of New Hampshire who wrote a recently published book on King.
"He was considered by many to be a pariah," Sitkoff said.
But he took on issues of poverty and militarism because he considered them vital "to make equality something real and not just racial brotherhood but equality in fact," Sitkoff said.
While there has been scholarly study of King and everything he did, that knowledge hasn't translated into the popular culture perception of him and the civil rights movement, said Richard Greenwald, professor of history at Drew University in Madison, N.J.
"We're living increasingly in a culture of top 10 lists, of celebrity biopics which simplify the past as entertainment or mythology," he said. "We lose a view on what real leadership is by compressing him down to one window."
That does a disservice to King and society, said Melissa Harris-Lacewell, professor of politics and African-American studies at Princeton University.
By freezing him at that point, by putting him on a pedestal of perfection that doesn't acknowledge his complex views, "it makes it impossible both for us to find new leaders and for us to aspire to leadership," Harris-Lacewell said.
She believes it's important for Americans in 2008 to remember how disliked King was in 1968.
"If we forget that, then it seems like the only people we can get behind must be popular," Harris-Lacewell said. "Following King meant following the unpopular road, not the popular one."
King's legacy has been used by people all over the political spectrum, said Glenn McNair, associate professor of history at Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio.
He's been part of the 2008 presidential race, in which Senator Barack Obama of Illinois is seeking to become the country's first black president. Obama has invoked King, and Senator John F. Kerry endorsed Obama by noting King's comment that "the time is always right to do what is right."
Not all the references have been received well. When Senator Hillary Clinton of New York commented on President Lyndon B. Johnson's role in winning approval of civil rights legislation in the 1960s, some of Obama's backers suggested that she belittled the role of King.
King has "slipped into the realm of symbol that people use and manipulate for their own purposes," McNair said.