ESPANOLA, N.M. -- Four years ago, about 2,300 voters traveled the winding roads through this remote county to cast their ballots before Election Day on state-of-the-art, push-button electronic voting machines. For 678 of them, their votes were never recorded.
Vice President Al Gore won this state by 366 votes. Even if the missing votes had gone for George W. Bush and given him New Mexico's five electoral votes, it would not have changed the outcome of the presidential race.
But the missing votes in Rio Arriba County show that even in the finest electronic voting systems -- New Mexico holds itself out as a leader after a decade of experience -- serious miscounts that could sway elections can occur if the computerized machines are not correctly programmed.
With many states making moves to electronic voting machines this year, critics of the new technology say it is fraught with the potential for fraud. But what happened in Rio Arriba County shows what some computer experts say is a far more pressing concern: mistakes in computer programming by inexperienced local election workers.
"It was such a mess, but there was nothing we could do about it because it was over. It was too late. The election had already gone through," Fresquez said. When it came to reporting the results, "we allowed the county to do the best they could and, as you can see, it wasn't too good."
In the months after the disputed 2000 presidential vote in Florida, which was marred by "hanging chads" and other problems with paper ballots, advocates of electronic voting machines said computerized systems would end concerns about accuracy.
A number of states, including Maryland and Georgia, have moved to such systems, spending tens of millions of dollars.
Critics have said the machines are not perfect and are subject to deliberate tampering, but the experience in Rio Arriba County shows that simple, benign mistakes in programming can lead to results being wildly off.
Mistakes are likely to arise when thousands of small counties nationwide program ballots for multiple districts with dozens of races in each election, said Steve Ansolabehere, a political scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who is participating in the CalTech-MIT Voting Technology Project. "That is the number one problem with electronic voting: the programming for each election," he said. "These offices in rural areas do not have the staff with the kind of technical expertise necessary to do electronic voting."
The need for better training of local workers and volunteers is one point on which supporters and opponents of electronic voting agree.
About 90 percent of New Mexico's voters cast their ballots electronically. Rio Arriba County, with a population of 40,000, sits on the state's northern border and features a mile-high valley between two plateaus, with purple mountains in the distance. It takes 2 hours to drive from one end of the county to another; from some pueblos, driving to a polling place requires following a road into Colorado and back.
Because of those distances, County Clerk Fred Vigil encourages voting during the month before the election on the push-button electronic voting equipment used here for a decade.
Neither Vigil nor state elections director Denise Lamb remembered problems in Rio Arriba when asked about them. They referred questions to Fresquez.
Rio Arriba County has three voting districts -- the candidates for state legislature in each are different -- but for early voters the county used just one ballot listing the names of all the candidates.
In one district, none of the 203 ballots cast were recorded for Bush or Gore. In another, 188 of the 569 voters cast a presidential vote. The third district had a more typical pattern, with 1,500 of the 1,594 voters recording a presidential choice.
New Mexico is the only state to have an elaborate, three-step audit process of voting results. Precinct results are checked by the county and state and then by a certified public accounting firm. The federal Election Assistance Commission, established after the 2000 Florida recount to help states establish new voting systems, has cited the audit as a "best practice" to be used elsewhere.
Mistakes with new computer technology leave election officials with no recourse, said Avi Ruben of Johns Hopkins University, who opposes electronic voting.
The outcome of a close presidential election could hinge on votes that cannot be reconstructed. "What are we going to do?" he asked. "Do we throw our hands up on a national scale and say, 'We messed up?' "