In 2010 alone, 112 people were killed as troops fired live ammunition into the crowds, inciting further protests in a deadly cycle of violence.
Though the last two years have been relatively calm, the violence after Guru’s execution — with troops firing tear gas and bullets and using batons to chase away rock-throwing protesters — brought back memories from a time many here had hoped was over.
Mufti Mohammed Sayeed, a former Indian home minister who has also been the chief minister of Indian Kashmir, said Guru’s hanging was a ‘‘serious setback to peace.’’
At least 40 separatist leaders and activists have been detained and put under house arrest to prevent them from leading anti-India protests, a police officer said, speaking on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to speak to the media.
Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, a top separatist leader, told reporters in New Delhi that the hanging damaged hopes for any future negotiations with the government.
‘‘Once you push people to the wall they have no other way but to respond with equal aggression,’’ he said Saturday, after the hanging. Soon after, he was placed under house arrest.