LONDON -- Britain outlawed fox hunting in England and Wales yesterday as elected legislators won a dramatic standoff with the House of Lords to ban the popular country sport that is despised by many urbanites. Some hunting supporters vowed to defy the ban.
The years-long debate over outlawing a sport that opponents see as cruel has been highly charged and deeply divisive. Scotland has previously outlawed hunting.
The chamber invoked the rarely used 1949 Parliament Act to force the ban into law despite the opposition of the unelected House of Lords. After the Lords rejected one last compromise gesture, to postpone the effective date until 2006, Speaker of the Commons Michael Martin announced the bill had been passed. The formality of royal assent followed within 45 minutes.
Proponents of fox hunting pledged to go to court to fight the ban, which takes effect in three months. "True civil disobedience is now on the horizon," John Jackson, chairman of the pro-hunting Countryside Alliance, said as the House of Commons voted.
Several hundred whistling, banner-waving hunting supporters gathered last night outside Windsor Castle, where Queen Elizabeth II was staging a banquet in honor of President Jacques Chirac of France.
"There are a lot of angry people here, people of all ages and from all backgrounds, who are fed up with being ignored," said Ian Agnew, chairman of the Surrey Union Hunt.
Prime Minister Tony Blair, who had promoted a compromise to regulate hunting, agreed with both sides in predicting that the battle would quickly move to the courts.
While it will still be legal to shoot foxes, the legislation bans all hunting with hounds, including the pursuit of rabbits and deer.
Before yesterday, the 1949 Parliament Act had been used only three times: to lower the age of consent for homosexual sex, to allow British courts to try Nazis suspected of war crimes, and to change the electoral system for selecting representatives to the European Parliament.
The hunting issue sparked a protest in September 2002, when 400,000 hunting supporters marched through central London in what was billed as one of Britain's largest protests in 150 years.
In September, five hunting enthusiasts stormed onto the House of Commons floor as lawmakers debated the ban. Some 10,000 protesters massed outside Parliament that day and some clashed with police in riot gear. Opponents of the ban have vowed to defy it.
James Gray of the Conservative Party called the ban proposal a "disgraceful, prejudiced, and ignorant little bill" and promised that the Tories would repeal it if they win elections expected next year.
Opponents of hunting with hounds say it is unacceptably cruel since the dogs kill foxes by tearing them apart. They also deride it as a mainly aristocratic pastime.
Supporters argue that hunting with hounds is humane because the prey dies quickly. They say it attracts fans from all walks of life, and is central to rural Britain's culture and economy.