Jermaine Cunningham has become the latest Boston athlete to be suspended for violating a performance-enhancing drug policy. The defensive end reportedly tested positive for Adderall, a drug commonly prescribed for patients with attention disorders.
Cunningham joined a list of prominent athletes, many from Boston, who have been accused or convicted of using substances banned by their various leagues.
Scroll through the gallery to see some of the more high-profile cases. Next
New England Patriots rookie running back Brandon Bolden will return to the active roster on Dec. 3 after serving a four-game suspension for performance-enhancing substances. Bolden hasn't played since October 14 because of a previous knee injury. The NFL announced his suspension on Nov. 9. The substance involved was not revealed. Next
New England Patriots' middle linebacker Brandon Spikes was suspended in December of 2010 after testing positive for performance-enhancers. Spikes said he made a "rookie mistake" when he took perscription medication he said he believed contained no illegal chemicals. Next
In the summer of 2012, the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency stripped Armstrong of his seven Tour de France titles and banned the cyclist for life after he was convicted of doping throughout his competitive career. His own charity, the Livestrong Foundation, dropped Armstrong from their campaign name and he resigned from its board of directors. The UCI, the world governing body for cycling, backed the USADA’s action. Next
The San Francisco outfielder was suspended 50 games in August 2012 following a positive test for testosterone. The suspension eliminated him from the end of the regular season after a stellar 11-homer, 60-RBI season with the Giants, although even when he was eligible to return, the Giants declined to put him on their postseason roster.
Cabrera, who was the MVP of the All-Star Game, asked to be removed from the running for the NL batting title even though his plate appearances before the suspension made him eligible. Next
On June 25, 2012, MLB announced that Byrd tested positive for Tamoxifen, an illegal performance-enhancer, and suspended him for 50 games. The outfielder claimed the presence of the drug in his system was due to a recurrence of a previous surgery which led him to take the drug.
Byrd played for the Red Sox after being acquired in an April 2012 trade with the Cubs, but was released in mid-June. Byrd claimed the test result was because he used medication to treat a recurrence of a condition he’d had surgery for prior to joining the Red Sox. Next
In December 2011, Milwaukee Brewers left fielder Ryan Braun tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs after elevated levels of testosterone were found in his body. Named 2011’s National League MVP, Braun called the test result “B.S.” and attempted to appeal the conviction. In February 2012, Braun’s record was wiped clean when he was exonerated from the charges and was not given a 50 game suspension.
Braun became the first Major Leaguer to successfully appeal a positive test following a controversial ruling by a three-judge panel. Braun’s appeal was based on how his test sample was handled. Next
The Oakland Athletics’ pitcher was given a 50-game suspension after testing positive for performance-enhancing drugs in August 2012. The 39-year-old apologized for his actions, and did not deny the allegations. Next
Red Sox designated hitter David Ortiz tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in 2003, but was never convicted or given a suspension. He was one of roughly 100 baseball players accused of using drugs at the time, but denied ever buying or using illegal substances. Big Papi vowed to get to the bottom of the allegations, but never followed up on his promise. Next
Barry Bonds, the majors' all-time leader in home runs, has been at the center of the steroid controversy since 2003. He was indicted on perjury and obstruction of justice for lying under oath about using steroids in his testimony during the BALCO hearings. Bonds told a grand jury that he used a cream and clear substance given to him by his trainer, but he had no idea that the substances were steroids. Bonds was convicted of obstructing justice in 2011, but he was spared jail time and sentenced to two years probation and 30 day shouse arrest. Next
<b>Jason and Jeremy Giambi</b>
Jason Giambi, who won the AL MVP award in 2001, admitted to using steroids from 2001 until 2003 during his BALCO testimony in 2003. "I was wrong for doing that stuff," Giambi told USA Today in May 2007. "What we should have done a long time ago was stand up—players, ownership, everybody—and said: 'We made a mistake.'" Jason's brother, Jeremy, also admitted to steroid use in 2003, while playing for the Red Sox. Both brothers admitted that they made mistakes. Next
News that Alex Rodriguez was one of the 104 names on the 2003 list of players who tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs broke right on the eve of spring training. Two days later A-Rod admitted to using banned substances from 2001 until 2003 while playing for the Texas Rangers. "Back then, [baseball] was a different culture," Rodriguez told ESPN's Peter Gammons. "It was very loose. I was young. I was stupid. I was naive. And I wanted to prove to everyone that I was worth being one of the greatest players of all time. I did take a banned substance. And for that, I am very sorry and deeply regretful." He denied any PED use while playing for the Yankees. Despite coming clean, two years earlier Alex Rodriguez denied any steroid use in an interview with Katie Couric. Next
Former Red Sox slugger Manny Ramirez was suspended for 50 games in 2009 for violating baseball's drug policy while with the Dodgers and again for 100 games at the start of the 2011 season while with the Rays. Ramirez retired rather than serve the 100-game suspension, but then decided to attempt a comeback in 2012. His suspension was cut to 50 games, and he played briefly before being released by the A’s in June of 2012.
. Ramirez denied taking any performance-enhancing drug in 2009, blaming the failed test on prescribed medication that he did not know contained a banned substance. He released this statement: "Under the policy that mistake is now my responsibility. I have been advised not to say anything more for now. I do want to say one other thing; I've taken and passed about 15 drug tests over the past five seasons. I want to apologize to Mr.McCourt, Mrs. McCourt, Mr. Torre, my teammates, the Dodger organization, and to the Dodger fans. L.A. is a special place to me and I know everybody is disappointed. So am I. I'm sorry about this whole situation."
That was merely the tip of the iceberg. Ramirez was also linked with Ortiz as having tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in 2003. Next
Sammy Sosa has been linked to steroids, but during a 2005 testimony he told a federal grand jury, "To be clear, I have never taken illegal performance-enhancing drugs." A New York Times report included Sosa as someone who tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in 2003. Next
Andy Pettitte was one of the players listed on the 2007 Mitchell Report as having allegedly used steroids or other performance-enhancing drugs. Two days after the report was released, Pettitte admitted to having taken human growth hormone on two separate occasions, to help him come back from injury. In a press conference before 2008 spring training Pettitte was remorseful, telling members of the media and his fellow teammates, "I am sorry. I know in my heart why I did things. I know that God knows that. I know that I'm going to have to stand before him one day. The truth hurts sometimes and you don't want to share it. The truth will set you free. I'm going to be able to sleep a lot better." Next
The Patriots' Rodney Harrison was suspended for the first four games of the 2007 season after he admitted to using HGH to help speed up his recovery from injuries in his knees and shoulder. Harrison publicly apologized. "I've made no excuses and I will not make excuses," Harrison said. "I sent the wrong message with my actions. This is a mistake and this is something that I've done." He retired this past June. Next
Mark McGwire has never admitted to using steroids. In tear-filled Congressional testimony in 2005, McGwire said that he "wasn't here to talk about the past." Jose Canseco, McGwire's teammate in Oakland, said that he had injected McGwire with steroids, but McGwire has always denied any steroid use. The former slugger did admit taking androstenedione, which although not banned by Major League Baseball at the time, was banned by the world-doping committee and the NFL. Androstenedione was banned by MLB in 2004. Next
One day after Ortiz and Ramirez were outed for banned substance use in 2003, Bronson Arroyo said that he wouldn't be shocked if he was on the 2003 list as well. Arroyo said he used androstenedione before the MLB banned it in 2004, and amphetamines until 2006. Arroyo played with the Red Sox from 2003 until 2005. "Before 2004, none of us paid any attention to anything we took," Arroyo said, according to the Boston Herald. "Now they don't want us to take anything unless it's approved. But back then, who knows what was in stuff? The FDA wasn't regulating stuff, not unless it was killing people or people were dying from it." Arroyo said andro "made me feel great, I felt like a monster. I felt like I could jump and hit my head on the basketball rim." Next
Former Red Sox pitcher Roger Clemens has vehemently denied ever using steroids despite multiple accusations, and he was found not guilty at his perjury trial in June of 2012.
Clemens' trainer for years, Brian McNamee, testified before a federal grand jury that he had injected Clemens with HGH, along with Pettitte. The seven-time Cy Young winner has been in and out of court for years stating that his longevity in baseball is due to his work ethic rather than any unnatural substance. His lawyer claimed that he wasn't one of the players that tested positive for banned substances in 2003. "He's never injected me with HGH or steroids," Clemens said of McNamee's assertions to baseball investigator George Mitchell.
A first trial on charges he lied to Congress when he testified in 2008 was declared a mistrial. Next
Rafael Palmeiro, a first baseman and left fielder for 20 major league seasons, denied using steroids at a 2005 Congressional hearing. Three months after testifying, Palmeiro was suspended 10 games for testing positive for an illegal substance. Palmerio went on to deny ever knowingly using steroids and blamed a teammate, Miguel Tejada, for his positive test. He continues to deny ever having knowledge of putting any illegal substance into his body. Next
Miguel Tejada was one of the names mentioned in the Mitchell Report. In addition, Rafael Palmeiro told an arbitration panel that he tested positive for banned substances in 2005 because of a supplement that Tejada had given him. In 2006 Miguel Tejada told the press that "I know that I've never had a problem with that [steroids]. I know that I've never used that and I know I am clean." On Feb. 10, Tejada was charged with lying to Congress about PEDs in 2005. The Astros' shortstop pled guilty and was given one year probation. Next
A former MLB outfielder and designated hitter, Jose Canseco has been the most vocal, outing many players—including himself—for use of performance-enhancing drugs in his book "Juiced", in which he estimated that 80 percent of major leaguers at one point at the height of the "Steroid Era" had taken performance-enhancing. Back to the beginning
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